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Geoarchaeology and Archaeosismology Research

Project Team

Prof. Dr. Mahmut Göktuğ DRAHOR

Geophysical Engineer, Dokuz Eylül University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ökmen SÜMER

Geologist, Dokuz Eylul University

Ahmet Cemal DRAHOR

Engineer, Geoim Geophysics & Engineering

Buğra OĞUZ KAYA

Geophysical Engineer, Geoim

Mustafa Sadık YAĞLIDERE

Geophysical Engineer, Geoim

Caner ÖZTÜRK

Geophysical Engineer, Geoim

Selinda DRAHOR

Architect, Istituto Europea Design

Geology and active fault map of Bozburun and its surroundings. Map obtained from after combining Ersoy, (1993), Şenel and Bilgin, (1997a, b) and Emre et al., (2011), and rearranging it specifically for this study.

Phoenix Archeological Project (PAP) is a project that aims to examine Taşlıca settlement and its surrounding archaeological settlements with a multidisciplinary approach, which is approximately 45 km away from Marmaris in Bozburun peninsula of Western Anatolia. Within the first 5 years of the archeoseismology studies, which is a part of the Phoenix Archeology Project, the studies will be carried out by a team led by Dokuz Eylül University faculty members Prof. Dr. Mahmut Göktuğ Drahor and Associate Prof. Dr. Ökmen Sümer.

The study area is geologically located at the southwestern end of the Western Anatolian expansion zone. The region is tectonically active and has high seismicity. While the first geological researches conducted in the region were based on the travel notes of Spratt and Forbes (1847), especially the geographical maps of Bozburun and Datça peninsulas were published by Newton (1865) and Spratt (1886), respectively. Except for Tchihatcheff’s (1867) wide area map covering the Aegean Sea and its surroundings, the first detailed geological map of the region with a scale of 1/300000 was produced by Philippson (1915). Later, a more detailed geological map with a scale of 1/100000 covering the Datça and Bozburun peninsulas was prepared by Kaaden and Metz (1954). Ersoy (1993), on the other hand, presented both the 1/400000 geological map of the area and the geological evolution of the Mesozoic succession in the region in his study, which was conducted exclusively on the Bozburun peninsula. Within the scope of the geological mapping studies carried out by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, MTA, the geological maps of the O19 and O20 sheets with a scale of 1/100000 covering the Bozburun Peninsula were published as a booklet by Şenel and Bilgin (1997a, b).

Although the structural elements in the area are shown on geological maps produced especially until the 2000’s, active faults exposed in the Bozburun Peninsula and have the potential to produce earthquakes were first revealed in the Renewed Turkey Active Fault Maps series made by MTA. Emre et al. (2011), 1/250000 scaled Marmaris (NJ 35-15 Sheet – Series No: 8) active fault map shows three fault zones that are considered in the Quaternary fault class and named Selimiye, Bozburun and Taşlıca from north to south (Figure 1). According to Emre et al. (2018), the length of these active faults varies between 11 and 21 km, whose character has a dip-slip normal faulting mechanism. As a result of the FaultStat program which was developed by Sumer et al. (2018) made a solution according to the relationship between fault parameters and earthquake magnitude, it was calculated that these faults have the potential to produce earthquakes between Mw: 6.1-6.8 magnitude.

In the first stage, the archaeoseismological studies to be carried out within the scope of the Phoenix Archaeology Project aim to determine the effects of ancient earthquakes that may have been created by active faults in the region and the possible deformation traces (rotation, tilting, cutting, snake-shaped undulation, horizontal and vertical displacement, etc.) in the archaeological structures.

On the other hand, it is also important that the names of archaeological sites such as Phoenix and its surrounding Saranda and Prinari / Tlos (?) are of Luwian origin and some Bronze Age shipwrecks (Özdaş et al., 2020) already detected in the region, especially in Bozburun and Serçeliman. This case indicates that the area may should have been inhabited since the Bronze Age. Thus, the data to be obtained within the scope of archaeoseismological studies will provide to obtain important information about the area by determining the historical period earthquake activities, which is thought to have been uninterrupted settlements since the Bronze Age.

Other scientific studies planned to be conducted in the first years of the project in parallel with the archaeoseismological studies are as follows; It is the detailed mapping of active faults in the region, determination of their kinematic and geometric features, mapping of the morphological structures and possible changes in the coastline associated with tectonic and / or eustatic events. In addition, it is another goal to investigate the tsunami traces caused by the Aegean and Mediterranean originated earthquakes in bays such as Serçelimanı, Casara, Prinari and Bozuk Liman, which presented by high value of bay shape factor (Shp).

When the archaeoseismological, kinematic, morphometric and tsunami data that will emerge with this project are combined with archaeological findings, it is aimed to reach important findings about the active tectonics of the southwest of Anatolia. Since the Bronze Age, the region is thought to have an important place in the Mediterranean’s maritime trade network. It will also enable to reveal the relations between the ports suitable for maritime trade and the tectonic phenomena in the region with the archeoseismology studies that will be carried out in parallel with the archaeology studies.

REFERENCES

Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Özalp, S., 2011. 1:250.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Diri Fay Hartası Serisi, Marmaris (NJ 35-15) Paftası, Seri No: 8, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, Türkiye.

Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Özalp, S., Elmacı, H., Olgun, Ş., Şaroğlu, F. 2013. Active fault map of Turkey with explanatory text. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Special Publication Series, 30. 

Emre, Ö., Duman, T. Y., Özalp, S., Şaroğlu, F., Olgun, Ş., Elmacı, H., Çan, T. 2018. Active fault database of Turkey. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16, 3229-3275.

Ersoy, S. 1993. Transgresif platform karbonat istifine Bozburun (Marmaris, Muğla) yarımadasından bir örnek. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni, 36(2), 171-177.

Kaaden, G.v.d., Metz, K. 1954. Datça-Muğla-Dalaman çayı (SW Anadolu) arasındaki bölgenin jeolojisi. Türkiye Jeol. Kurumu Bülteni, 5 (1-2), 71-171.

Newton, C.T. 1865. Travels & Discoveries in the Levant, (Vol. 2), Day & Son, Limited: London.

Özdaş, H., Held, W., Kızıldağ, N. 2020. A Newly-Detected Potential Submerged Minoan Settlement in the Karian Chersonesos, IPR XXV abstracts, February 12- 17, Frankfurt.

Philippson, A. 1915. Reisen und Forschungen im westlichen Kleinasien (Nr. 183). Justus Perthes: Gotha.

Spratt, T.A.B. 1886. Remarks on the Dorian Peninsula and Gulf, with Notes on a Temple of Latona there. Archaeologia: or Miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquty, 49(2), 345-365.

Spratt, T.A.B., Forbes, E. 1847. Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis in Compagny with the Late Rev. ET Daniell, (Vol. 1), John Van Voorst: London.

Sümer, Ö., Karagöz, O., Alak, A. 2018. A New Software For Relationships Between Fault Parameters and Earthquake Size: FaultStat. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Science and Engineering, 18(3), 1089-1101.

Şenel, M., Bilgin, Z.R. 1997a. 1:100 000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritaları No: 18 Marmaris-L 4 ve L 5 Paftaları, MTA Jeoloji Etütleri Dairesi, Ankara.

Şenel, M., Bilgin, Z.R. 1997b. 1:100 000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritaları No: 18 Marmaris-L 6 Paftası, MTA Jeoloji Etütleri Dairesi, Ankara.

Tchihatcheff, P.De. 1867. Asie Mineure. Description physique de cette contrée, Quatrième partie, Géologie, (Vol. 1), Librairie Théodore Morgand: Paris

Mahmut Göktuğ Drahor has been studied as a Professor in Department of Geophysical Engineering of Engineering Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University. He specializes in Near Surface Geophysics, Archaeological Prospection and Archaeoseismology. He has got the first geophysics doctorate in the investigation of archaeological sites in Turkey. In addition, he founded the first research center about Near Surface Geophysics and Archaeological Prospection in Turkey. Drahor has got a great number of national and international papers on this subject. He is also founded member of the International Society of Archaeological Prospection (ISAP), and he had been executed the member of management Committee of this society. Currently, he has got Scientific Committee member of some national and international societies, and he is continued scientific researches and studied as a consultancy in many project on related subjects. He is also a Management Committee member on behalf of Turkey in the european union Cost project “The Soil science & archaeo-Geophysics Alliance: going beyond prospection (SAGA), which is a new interdisciplinary network of scientists”.

Ökmen Sümer is a multifaceted scientist started his academic career in 2001 at the Geological department of Dokuz Eylül University after graduating from the same college. His Master and PhD thesis cover geologic evolution of different Neogene to Quaternary basins located in western Anatolia which were formed influence of both extensional and strike-slip tectonic regimes. He has been authored numerous publications during over the last twenty years. Most of his research has been concerned with the sedimentology, structural geology, development of basins and basin analysis, Neogene – Quaternary stratigraphy, paleoseismology, tectonic geomorphology, geodynamics, geoarchaeology and archaeoseismology. Other interests in his profession are Anthropocene time interval, anthropogenic pollution, volcanology and tephrochronology and dating techniques in Quaternary deposits as a tool for geological purposes. Also he gave lectures on sedimentology, structural geology, historical geology and Philosophy of Geology at different universities in Turkey as an invited speaker. He was also being honored the Golden Hammer Research Award in 2016 by the Chamber of Geological Engineers of Turkey for his spectacular work on the Ephesus Fault.

Born in 1963, Cemal Drahor was graduated from Bornova Anadolu Lisesi in 1981. He was then graduated from. İTÜ as an Electronics and Communication Engineer, in 1986. In his early career, he worked as a Research Engineer in R&D which was followed by active roles in Finance. Since 1990, he has been working in Senior Manager positions in various International & Global companies. He spend quite a long time abroad as being responsible for Regional and Global markets. He is still in charge of an Executive management role in a Global company as being Board member and General Manager. He has also played active roles in Geoim as founding partner. He is fluent in English and German. Cemal is also board member of BOSAD and KPTK. He actively continues sport activities i.e. Tennis, diving, trekking and cycling.

He graduated from Dokuz Eylül University, Geophysical Engineering Department in 2017. He has been working as a geophysical engineer at Geoim Engineering Consulting Software and Construction Ltd. He has been involved in geophysical studies of many archaeological sites since 2018.

He graduated from Dokuz Eylül University, Geophysical Engineering Department in 2018. He has been working as a geophysical engineer at Geoim Engineering Consulting Software and Construction Ltd. He has been involved in geophysical studies of many archaeological sites since 2018.

Caner Öztürk grauated from Dokuz Eylül University, Geophysical Engineering Department in 2008. He has worked in geophysical surveys of many archaeological sites since 2006. He has been continuing his career as a founding partner and project coordinator in Geoim Engineering, Consulting Ltd since 2011, and his PhD studies in Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa.

Selinda Drahor graduated from the Interior design department of Istituto Europeo di Design in Milan-Italy in the summer of 2020. She attends some archaeological excavations in line with her curiosity while she was a student. She worked as an assistant in geophysical research carried out in the Sapinuva archaeological excavation in 2015 and as also an architectural assistant in Sardis archaeological excavation in 2019. She speaks fluent English and intermediate German languages. Due to the education she received at the university, her artistic tendencies increased and she combined technique with art as a result of her education. Especially her passion for painting and music associates her with art.